KNOW WHY FDA HAS ISSUED A WARNING AGAINST THE USE OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINEFOR COVID-19 Part-1

Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine & SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Mechanism & Overview of Anti-Viral Effects

This lesson is on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine ins mechanism of action more specifically on its antiviral properties against SARS coronavirus – or SARS CoV – the novel coronavirus that causes kovat 19 so if you want more information on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in general please check out my other lesson on that topic so quarantine hydroxychloroquine have multiple effects on cellular in organelle functioning for one these medications have immunomodulatory effects they can actually inhibit certain immune cell functions which is helpful when we’re trying to treat autoimmune conditions so they can actually be used to treat certain rheumatological conditions like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis i’m not going to talk about these immunomodulatory effects in this lesson but if you want more information please check out my other lesson on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine the second major property that these medications has is that they can alkalinize vacuole ER or organelle ph like the lysosomal ph so the reason is is that chloroquine is alkaline and it can actually enter into organelles like the lysosome and they can enter into endosomes as well to actually increase the ph of those organelles decreasing those organelle function so it can be used to treat malaria so malaria is caused by the protozoa of Plasmodium species so it can inhibit protozoa food vacuole functioning by alkalinizing that food vacuole and as i mentioned before it can actually alkalinize the endosomes lysosomes and it can actually inhibit in the cytosis and lysosome effusion and function the third property of chloroquine is that it is known to be a zinc ionophore so being a zinc ion a foreign it can actually allow the influx of zinc into cells and into organelles like lysosomes and there’s some question as to allowing the zinc into cells as it also have an anti-cancer effect as well I’m not going to talk about that here but that’s something interesting to note as well in the fourth point I want to make here is that chloroquine in hydroxychloroquine are known to bind to silac acids and I’ll talk about what silac acids are a little later on so 0.2 3 & 4 are the points I’m going to talk about in this with regards to antiviral action against sera CoV – or the Crone virus that causes cava 19 so a quick disclaimer before I get into the antiviral properties of these medications this evidence I’m going to show you has been shown in in vitro studies essentially in a cell culture petri dish so keep that in mind before we get into these antiviral mechanisms of action so before we get into the mechanism of action I want to lay down the setting as to where all this is taking place so here is the plasma membrane of the host cell and here is the host cell itself here is a lysosome in acidified organelle that is responsible for recycling of nutrients and other waste products and here’s the nucleus that contains the genetic code the first point I want to talk about here is that chloroquine inhibits endocytosis we talked about how chloroquine is an alkalinizing agent well we’re going to talk about how it blocks endocytosis and there’s a paper that has shown that it can block Zika virus infections so this is where we’re going to start so this paper talks about how it blocks endocytosis so these SARS CoV – virus is here and this virus contains spike or s proteins on its surface these s proteins allow it to bind to ace – receptors on the host cell when it does actually bind to the ACE – receptor it can actually be in dosa ties into the cell into an endosome so it’s brought into the cell in this little endosome that in the zone will eventually transverse through the cytosol and fused to a lysosome where the virus can enter into the lysosome and exit the lysosome allowing it to infect the cell so with regards to chloroquine chloroquine can block this process through entering into the cell and it can actually permeate into endosomes and the lysosome allowing it to alkalinize the endosome and lysosome which means that it can increase the pH of the endosome and lysosome preventing it from being acidified so those Lices and endosomes are not acidic the way they are supposed to be so they become less functional or dysfunctional it may also inhibit a proton pump on the lysosome I’ve talked about this in previous lessons that there may be some inhibition of a proton pump on the lysosome known as the ATPase or vacuole ER ATPase although this is not entirely known at present nevertheless due to the alkalinization of endosomes and lysosomes endocytosis the process of endocytosis bringing the virus into the cells actually inhibited.

Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine & SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Mechanism & Overview of Anti-Viral Effects

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